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High school physics study guide

One or several methods of observation 1. sequential observation: observation in certain order.   2. characteristics of observation: according to the observation of the characteristics of the phenomenon.   3. comparative observation: the before and after several experiments comparing the observed phenomenon or experimental data. 4. observation: the complete observation of the phenomenon, understand picture of observed objects. Second, process analysis methods 1. resolve process level: in General, the complex physical processes are composed of several simple "process" consist of.   Therefore, the most basic method of analyzing physical processes, is hierarchical complex issues, put it into a number of interrelated "Sub" to study.   2. proven intermediate state: the stage Division will not be easy at times, also proved necessary to decide the physical phenomena from quantitative to qualitative changes in the intermediate state (or process) correct analysis of key links of physical processes. 3. straighten out the relationship: some comprehensive questions mentioned physical phenomenon, development and change processes are interdependent factors and check each other's "combined effects".   Correct analysis of all-round, multi-angle observation and analysis, grasp the inner link rule, straightening out relations, to seek solutions. 4. distinguish changes: development of physical phenomena occur under certain conditions. Conditions, physical processes will also change.   On the analysis of issues, paying special attention to changes due to conditions caused by changes in physical processes, to avoid problems similar to the qualitative difference. Third, the causal analysis 1. distinguish between causal status: there are many physical quantities in physics is defined by the ratio. Such as R=U/R, E=F/q, and so on. In this method, not all physical quantities proportional to each other.   But students in the physics formulas when dealing with the physical exercise and, often do not understand the physical quantity in the formula itself meaning, cannot distinguish between which there is a causal link, between which there is no causal link. 2. takes note of causes: any results caused by a reason, a reason to produce certain results.   Cause and effect often corresponds to the one by one, must not be confused.   3. reasons for fruit, fruit Soin medical: physical exercise training, from a different direction with a different way of thinking to causal analysis, conducive to the development of multi-direction thinking. Four prototype, prototype heuristics is inspired by something and assume that things are similar, ways to inspire people to solve new problems. Can inspire something called prototype. Prototypes can be drawn from life, production and experimental. Like a fish's body type is to create a prototype of the ship. Prototype elicitation can be realized depends on prototype exists in the mind, prototypes and imagery in the mind a related, adding prototypes mainly in the following three ways: 1 observe phenomena in the life, and learned to be a preliminary explanation; 2, through books, television, science, movies, watch to get; 3, pay attention to the experiment. Five summary is to summarize an individual to General awareness of the methods. Its basic features are similar to individual objects found in their Commons, by specific, smaller ranges extends to more general and wider understanding.   From a psychological point of view, generally comes in two different forms: one is the higher form of scientific generalization, this generalization is often the result of conception, this generalization is known as concepts generally; another is the primary form of experience generalization, also known as similar generalizations. Similar characteristics generally is based on external features to compare different things and abandon their different characteristics, and their common characteristics to be summarized, it is perceptual appearance stage of General, the result often is emotional, is primary. Into higher forms of summary must experience generalization on the basis of, all kinds of things and make an in-depth analysis, synthesis, to abstract the essence of things and phenomena and leave non-essential properties. Six, the induction the induction method is an important method of classical physics research and its theoretical construction. It's main task is to solve: first by the fruit or medical Soin, understand things and phenomena a causal link, auxiliary mat for the known laws of physics. Second through the phenomenon to grasp the essence, some physical fact (phenomena, processes) fall into a category, and find the control regulation. Complete this inductive measurement methods are: on the basis of observation and experiment, by careful examination of the case, and by comparison, analysis, synthesis, abstracted, summarizing and exploring causal and logical methods, launched a general conjecture or hypothesis, and then using the deduction amend and supplement, until finally the universality of physics ... Comparative law method that returns the comparison, is a common way of thinking in physics research, we often use one of the most basic ways.   The essence of this approach, it is the physical phenomenon analysis, concepts, laws, and different of the same, in order to grasp its essence.   Seven, and analogy method analogy is by a physical phenomenon, imagine to another a physical phenomenon, and on two species physical phenomenon for compared, by known physical phenomenon of law to launched another a physical phenomenon of law, or solution another a physical phenomenon in the of problem of thinking method, analogy not only can in physical knowledge system internal for, also can will many physical knowledge and other knowledge full learn knowledge, and chemical knowledge, and philosophy knowledge, and life common sense, for analogy, often can up to attunement difficult, and develop thought of role. BA, hypothetical reasoning assumes that reasoning is a scientific way of thinking, which requires us to study, based on physical processes, flexibility in the use of regular, bold assumptions, limitations on the breakthrough thinking, problems make things simple, kind of easy. There are the following main aspects: 1. the physical process of hypothesis 2. physical assumptions